What different materials at different atomic levels, it’s

What is nano chemistry? Nano chemistry works with different materials at different atomic levels, it’s like the transformations materials into different solutions. Nano chemistry is everything related to ‘nano’ like nanotechnology and nanoparticles. What are allotropes?Allotropes are a part of the whole of nanochemistry, these allotropes are different forms of the samelement, so for example diamond and graphite are both allotropes of carbon. Nano chemistry is the use of synthetic chemistry in order to make nanoscale of building blocks which depend on different size and shape, structure of it’s surface, composition and charge. There are four different types of nanochemistry/ technology;Nano wiresNano tubesNano crystalsWhat are nanowires?                                                                          Nano wires are part of the whole of nanochemistry, these nanowires are very small rods of atoms that have a solid and dense structure. What are nanotubes?Nanotubes are also apart of nanochemistry, they are hollow carbon tubes with nanometer dimensions which are a new form of carbon. What can nanotubes be used for?One use of nanotubes is that they can be used for reinforce graphite which is used in tennis rackets, they are also used as semiconductors in modern computers ad electric circuits. nanoparticles:Nano particles are particles that range between 1-100 nanometers, they are so small that they cannot even be seen using a microscope. They are very small in terms of diameter. These nanoparticles have many different uses:They are used in the production of sun cream, which contains zinc oxide the reason for nanoparticles being used n sun cream is because when nanoparticles are used suncream does not penetrate the skin as it doesn’t go into the skin and cause any damage. This is useful as it protects people’s ski from the sun and stops the sun from burning you and can reduce the chance                       of you getting skin cancer from the power of the sun.  so it reflects any harmful uv rays that are shining on the skin from the sun.Health care = these nanoparticles are used in plasters and bandages, this is because they can be used as a antibacterial against wounds that can become infected. So these nanoparticle bandages can also be used for healing, due to their properties they can help a wound to heal rather than staying open and having a high chance of becoming infected. Sports equipment = these nanoparticles are added to different sport equipment in order to make them stronger as this will make them useful for what they are used for. Nanoparticles are tiny pieces of a larger material. Smart materials:Smart materials are materials that have a range of different properties and can be changed into a certain way to control stimuli like temperature, stress, moisture and ph. These smart materials are designed to change during an external stimuli there are different types of smart materials like shape memory alloys, thermoelectric materials and thermochromic. These different types of smart materials have example of what it is that they are used.There are many different examples of different smart materials which include;Smart alloys = these are one example of these smart materials as they change in order to react stimuli this means they change shape when the temperature does. An example of this is braces as they are used in order to straighten teeth and are made out of titanium meaning they can change shape to fit on to your teeth and straighten them. This is a smart material as it can remember its original shape and these braces are made from titanium and titanium is a example of smart alloys. Thi is a good material to use for braces as these smart alloys when they are deformed (bent) they keep their new shape until they are heated, so when the temperature reaches a certain temperature the alloy returns back to it’s normal shape. Nickel titanium is an example and is what is used in dental braces and becomes nitinol and is useful as it causes a constant force to be pushed against the teeth causing them to go into the right/original shape. Stent tubes = these are smart materials and are tubes that are inserted into damaged blood vessels, this stent helps to strengthen the blood vessel it’s being used for in order tos top it from bursting or collapsing. It does this by the stent being put n cold and begins to expand in the blood vessel (to the correct diameter) so that this stent can warm up to the body’s temperature and strengthen the blood vessel that is close to bursting. Smart materials have the ability to react to different changes that happen in the environmentWhat are the different types of smart materials?Shape memory polymers = when they are heated these polymers start to soften so that it can be stretched and start to deform. It will carry on to be in it’s deformed shape until it is reheated and then goes back into its original shape as it remembers what it’s meant to be like. Shape memory alloys = there are different types of alloys like copper and titanium which have a shape retention memory so they now what there original shape is to move back into it. Hydrogels = these are polymers that are cross linked and have the ability to absorb water when there is a change in a particular stimuli like change in temperature. Waterproof clothing = things like wet suits that stop your body from getting wet.Specialised materials:A specialised material is a material that is specially/made for a certain use, so they are specifically designed for something due to their properties they may have. There Are many different examples of products that are classed as specialised materials as they are made for a particular use: Specialised polymers = these are a type of polymers that are designed for a specific use and are used in repairing concrete as they are made for repairs that takes a strong product to ensure that it hold and is also good for patching cement up. Health = one example of a specialised material within the health department is dental amalgam- it’s a specialised material that is used for dental surgeons to fill cavities in teeth. This dental amalgam is also known as silver feeling, due to their appearance which is silver and shiny, the cavities that almagain is used to fill is caused from tooth decay and this specialised material is good for filling holes in the teeth caused by this. What are nano chemicals?Nano chemicals are different chemicals that are made from using different nanomaterials. These nano chemicals can be used during an applications like the manufacturing of bicycles and the production of military weapons. The most common nano chemical is carbon nanotubes, which are used in the industry to make stronger materials. Why are people interested in nanoscience?These nanoparticles can produce new properties in materialsNano particles are so tiny that they have a huge surface area.In terms of using nanotechnology on the medical side, it’s very useful in helping creating ‘smart drugs’, these new smart drugs are a good thing about using nanotechnology as they help to cure poele faster and not only is it quicker these drugs also have no side effects. It’s common that different drugs that people take have a lot of side effects that can make them sick and tired, however the drugs created by nanotechnology have no side effects. Since these drugs have been tested and proven to work, people are ow thinking to develop nanotechnology even further than what it is used for now and used in things like bone repair – so if there has been a bad break in one of your bones nanotechnology can be used to repair it. It’s even thought that nanotechnology be used as a cure for cancer. Another advantage of using nanochemicals/nanotechnology is it’s benefits of using energy, it’s developing a more useful and efficient energy sector so energy storages are being used in maller and more efficient devices to stop the amount of energy that is being wasted. These more efficient devices include fuel cells, batteries and solar cells –  so they are built smaller but are more effective. Nanotechnology is being tested for ‘cleaning water’, this is a major advantages nanotechnology can help t meet the clean drinking water that is also affordable. This is because the nano chemicals are good for leaning products, so they can clean any impurities and toxins out of dirty water around the world is less developed countries that are living on infected water.Nanotechnology is extremely useful in terms of the materials that it is used for, so it’s stronger and lighter, materials have become stronger so that they are more useful and reduces the chance that they will break. Disadvantages of nanotechnology: Although there are many advantages of using nanotechnology, there are also some negatives and one of these is that people are being put out of jobs meaning that they have no money coming in this is especially aimed at farmers and manufacturers as a cheaper and effective alternative has been found – nanotechnology. One type of this nanotechnology and the nano chemicals used is nanotubes, however this nanotubes can be responsible for causing infections in the lungs.These nanoparticles that are used/involved in nanotechnology are so tiny that they can actually cause harm to the body if they are inhaled. Another disadvantage is that not whilst nanotechnology is still developing it is very expensive process so it can end up costing you a lot of money for using nanotechnology compared to other materials. Advantages of smart materials:They are cheap so don’t cost a lot, so they are cheap for what they can do compared to other products. They are lighter and cheaper than metalsThey are easier to manufacture.They can be used to join components together- they have a high energy density.Disadvantages of smart materials:They are putting people out of work, as people are not needed as smart materials can do what they can but better.They are not biodegradableThey can sometimes be expensive to produce, they dont cost alot to use but they can they cost alot to produce. They could have long term effects that we don’t know about, they could be damaging the environment like causing pollution however we are not 100% sure on the effects yet. Advantages of specialised materials:They add strength to different products that are being used.They add flexibilityYou get the exact properties that you wantNanotechnology can cause harm to the environment , as these nanoparticles have higher surface areas than what the larger/bulk materials do so these nanoparticles when used can damage the environment as well as the human body as they have many disadvantages. This is because these nanoparticles can be responsible for contributing towards air pollution due to them being harmful. So one of the advantages that i have included of using nanotechnology is that they are very useful in the medical department, so the nanotechnology is used for ‘smart drugs’ which are a type of drugs however they are much more developed than what the usual traditional drugs are. The way that they are more developed is the fact that they have a better effect when it comes to curing people so by using these new and developed drugs it can ensure that people who are taking these new smart drugs will recover much more quicker than if they just took the normal drugs given. Having a much quicker recovery from taking these drugs is a huge advantage as it means that less drugs are needed so usually the course of the drugs you are taking can take a lot time to make you feel better but with these new and improved smart drugs is that it’s a quicker process so the drugs. Another positive of this is that it saves the nhs money for having to pay lots of money for a lot of drugs as they are not as effective so more normal drugs would be needed. However nanotechnology has some disadvantages and concerns about it being used like the fact that they are putting people out of jobs like labouring as due to nanotechnology can be used to create nanobots. These are basically like robots thatare made from nanotechnology that can be used to do the things that humans who work do. This will be seen as a better alternative as although the nanobots may be expensive to buy and set up, in the long run overtime they will work out cheaper as they do not have to pay people wages, so this means people are being putting out of their jobs and not earning anymore so this is one reason why nanotechnology can be seen as a bad thing. Another concern about using nanotechnology is  that nanotubes are used in nanochemistry/nanotechnology and this nanotubes can be harmful as they can cause infections in the lungs and damage your body when breathed in and they are such little particles that they can be breathed in easily. So this is a disadvantages of using nanochemistry as they can cause harm to people. An advantage of using smart materials is that they are fairly cheap so they are not expensive and will not cost you a lot of more to use or buy them. This is a good thing as people would like to spend as less money as possible and smart materials are not expensive. Another good thing about using these smart materials is that they are light and cheaper than metals, so like the first good point i gave about smart materials was that tey cheap so they are a lot cheaper than having to pay out foractaul metals that cost a lot more than these smart materials. However some disadvantages of using these smart materials are that they can actually put people out of work as people won’t be needed to work when they can use this different smart materials that will also become more developed over time. This means that human work will no longer be needed due to these smart materials being able to do what they do but maybe even better, especially as these smart materials would cheaper to produce than having to pay people wages every so often. Another disadvantage of using these smart materials is that they are not biodegradable, this means that these different smart materials will not be able to be broken down over time so they will stay in the form/shape that they are already in. this is a bad thing because non biodegradable materials are bad for the environment as it just stays at litter for a very long time rather than breaking down like other materials do. An advantage that i have included for specialised materials is that they are strength to different products that people use that may not be as strong as they need to be for what it is that they are designed, so by doing this it makes these products stronger and more useful when they are used. So in the long run they are more worth the money as it’s less likely they will break. Another advantage of specialised materials and using them is that when you use them you get exactly what you want like the properties, so they are made for a specific purpose meaning they have the exact properties for what these certain specialised materials are being used for. This is a good thing as you know that they will do what it is that they are made for rather than purchasing something and it not working. However some disadvantages of using these specialised materials is that the companies that make these specialised materials will sell them for a lot of money, so are made from nanotechnology that can be used to do the things that humans who work do. This will be seen as a better alternative as although the nanobots may be expensive to buy and set up, in the long run overtime they will work out cheaper as they do not have to pay people wages, so this means people are being putting out of their jobs and not earning anymore so this is one reason why nanotechnology can be seen as a bad thing. Another concern about using nanotechnology is  that nanotubes are used in nanochemistry/nanotechnology and this nanotubes can be harmful as they can cause infections in the lungs and damage your body when breathed in and they are such little particles that they can be breathed in easily. So this is a disadvantages of using nanochemistry as they can cause harm to people. An advantage of using smart materials is that they are fairly cheap so they are not expensive and will not cost you a lot of more to use or buy them. This is a good thing as people would like to spend as less money as possible and smart materials are not expensive. Another good thing about using these smart materials is that they are light and cheaper than metals, so like the first good point i gave about smart materials was that tey cheap so they are a lot cheaper than having to pay out foractaul metals that cost a lot more than these smart materials. However some disadvantages of using these smart materials are that they can actually put people out of work as people won’t be needed to work when they can use this different smart materials that will also become more developed over time. This means that human work will no longer be needed due to these smart materials being able to do what they do but maybe even better, especially as these smart materials would cheaper to produce than having to pay people wages every so often. Another disadvantage of using these smart materials is that they are not biodegradable, this means that these different smart materials will not be able to be broken down over time so they will stay in the form/shape that they are already in. this is a bad thing because non biodegradable materials are bad for the environment as it just stays at litter for a very long time rather than breaking down like other materials do. An advantage that i have included for specialised materials is that they are strength to different products that people use that may not be as strong as they need to be for what it is that they are designed, so by doing this it makes these products stronger and more useful when they are used. So in the long run they are more worth the money as it’s less likely they will break. Another advantage of specialised materials and using them is that when you use them you get exactly what you want like the properties, so they are made for a specific purpose meaning they have the exact properties for what these certain specialised materials are being used for. This is a good thing as you know that they will do what it is that they are made for rather than purchasing something and it not working. However some disadvantages of using these specialised materials is that the companies that make these specialised materials will sell them for a lot of money, so hey can be very expensive as they are more advanced and developed compared to just normal materials that are used/needed for certain things. So this a bad thing as you are paying a lot of money upfront juist to use these specialised materials. Another drawback of using these specialised materials is that they can only be used for a limited range of applications, so they cannot just be purchased and used in a number of applications and then be used over and over again. They can only be used for certain things and a certain number of times as after they are no longer useful.