The Advice Taker. The program was designed to

The
desire for intelligent systems was just a dream until the first computer was
developed. Early computers could manipulate large databases effectively by
following a prescribed algorithms. Later on, questions like if computers can
think started popping.

Engineers
and scientists since that time have been trying to build machines and systems
that can think and that we can call ‘intelligent’ and by intelligent here we
mean that those systems should be able to understand and learn things and this
can be done by experience and by experience we mean here that they have to analyze
thousands of examples to build an algorithm to achieve whatever they were built
for. And now we can define the intelligent systems as systems embedded with
internet connected computer that can perform a series of analytical procedures to
achieve what the system is made for.

 

Artificial
intelligence:

Artificial
intelligence is a science that has defined it’s goal to make machines do things
that would require intelligence if done by humans.

 

The
history of AI was founded by three generations:

      
I.           
The
birth of artificial intelligence (1943-1956)

The
first work in the field of AI was presented by Warren McCulloch and Walter
Pitts. McCulloch and his co-author Walter Pitts did a research on the central
nervous system resulted in the first major contribution to AI: a model of
neurons of the brain.

Another founder
of AI was John McCarthy. He worked after graduation from Princeton in Dartmouth
College. He started working in the summer workshop and made some researches
interested in the study of machine intelligence, artificial neural nets and
automata theory. Although there were just 10 researches, this workshop gave
birth to a new science called artificial intelligence.

 

   
II.           
The rise
of artificial intelligence (1956-1960s)

John
McCarthy defined one of the oldest programming languages the high-level
language LISP. Later, he presented a paper in which he proposed a program
called the Advice Taker. The program was designed to accept new axioms
(knowledge) in different areas without being reprogrammed. This program was the
first complete knowledge-based system incorporating the central principles of knowledge
representation and reasoning.

Another
ambitious project of this era was The General Problem Solver (GPS).It’s purpose
was to simulate human problem-solving methods by separating the problem-solving
techniques from the data.

In
conclusion, 1960’s was the time when they used general methods to find a
solution to the problem. Such approaches are now referred to as weak methods.

However,
that time was also the time when AI attracted many great scientists who
introduced fundamental new ideas to this field.

 

 III.           
The
impact of reality (1960s-1970s)

Since the mid 1950’s, the main purpose was to
build all-purpose intelligent machines that can exceed human intelligence by
the year of 2000.

However, those claims were too optimistic,
because very few AI programs could demonstrate some level of machine
intelligence in one or two toy problems and almost no AI project could deal
with a wider selection of tasks or more difficult real-world problems.