Personality & Motivation Word Count – 819Personality has no one definition but is generally focused towards an individual’s emotional, cognitive and behavioural patterns (Corr & Matthews, 2009). Motivation can be defined as the “direction and intensity of one’s effort” (Chatzisarantis, 2006). It is important a coach considers these as motivation may be affected differently depending on personality type and there is evidence to support that ‘motivation before a competition can predict sport performance’ (Vallerand, 2010). There are many key theories covering this area.Trait TheoryThe dimensions of personality (Eysenck, 1991) placed personality on two scales. The first is introversion, which is the ‘state of being predominantly interested in one’s own mental self’ (Merriam-Webster Dictionary), with individuals being reflective and less sociable (Helgoe, 2008) thriving in individual sports such as athletics or precision sports as introverts tend to perform at lower arousal, versus extraversion, which is the ‘state obtaining gratification from outside oneself’ (Merriam-Webster Dictionary), with individuals being more assertive and impulsive, thriving in team sports as they are highly externally motivated. The second is the scale of neuroticism in which the more neurotic an individual the more unpredictable and more likely to be upset an individual is (Eysenck, 1991). If a coach can profile an athlete using this theory, then they would be able to create an optimal training environment to best develop their athlete.Social Cognitive TheorySocial cognitive theory emphasises the cognitive process, suggesting factors such as memory and emotions interacted with environmental influences and learning e.g. reinforcement, are the main influences of personality and behaviour. Social learning theory (Bandura, 1963) is considered the key approach and suggests behaviour and personality can be moulded through a process called modelling e.g. an individual sees a behaviour demonstrated by a role model, to which they have paid attention to and then retained, resulting in the reproduction of the behaviour if motivated to do so and will be strengthened or weakened depending on its consequences. This can be achieved personally or vicariously. Through effective use of the modelling process, a coach could model his athletes’ behaviour to positively affect performance. Interactionist TheoryThe term interactionist refers to the use of multiple approaches to explain a single behaviour and so can be applied to many theories, however one theory of note is Lewin’s interactionist theory. Lewin stated, “behaviour is a function of the person and the environment” i.e. B=f(p.e) (Lewin, 1936). This means that all aspects of the person e.g. mood, cognition, experience, knowledge etc. interacts with environmental factors e.g. situation, task difficulty, weather etc. to produce the individual’s behaviour. The variables in the equation (P and E) can be substituted to more specific aspects of the respective variable allowing loose predictions of behaviour e.g. the individuals negative experience with slide tackling (replacing P) and the situation in which the individual is about to be slide tackled (replacing E) will result in the behaviour of kicking the ball away. This can be used by a coach to evaluate reasons for certain behaviours and therefore allow them to attempt to change them. Concentric Ring TheoryConcentric Ring Theory (Hollander, 1967) presents personality as a layered structure with deepest layer or ring being the psychological core. This is an individual’s basic values and attitudes, and is the truest reflection of that person. This level of personality is least affected by the environment. The next level is their ‘typical responses’ in which the individual is likely to respond to different situations e.g. humour, anxiety etc. These can be learned and modified. As a coach, this could be utilized by modifying how an athlete typically responds from potentially negatively effecting performance e.g. anger in football resulting in penalties, to something positively effecting e.g. increase in assertion (Feshbach, 1964). The last ring is the most superficial in that it is most easily changed by the environment. This is ‘role-related behaviour’ and results in the behaviour in which the individual believes best fits the role they are in, even if it is uncharacteristic (Kent, 2006) e.g. a typically violent player may be more disciplined if named captain.Achievement Goal TheoryAchievement goals refer to ability-based aims that athletes target in their sports. Originally, the two main categories were task and ego goals (Nicholls, 1984). These were later recategorized as mastery and performance goals (Dweck, 1986) (Dweck, 1988). Task/mastery goals focus on the mastery of a skill or task (being the best you can be) due to the athlete’s internal interest in the activity, with an importance put on effort and improvement e.g. achieving 100% shot accuracy. Ego/performance goals focuses on own performance versus the performance of others (being the best on the competition) e.g. scoring more goals than other strikers. Task orientation can lead to acceptance of challenging tasks and positive learning attitudes, while ego can lead to the opposite. Combining the two with athletes who perceive their competence as high can result in positive achievement outcomes (Fox, 1994). ReferencesBandura, R. R., 1963. Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models. Journal of abnormal and social psychology, 66(1), pp. 3-11.Chatzisarantis, H. S. S., 2006. The in?uences of intrinsic motivation on execution of social behaviour within the theory of planned behaviour. European journal of social psychology, I(36), pp. 229-237.Corr, P. J. & Matthews, G., 2009. The Cambridge handbook of personality psychology. I(1).Dweck, 1986. Motivational processes affecting learning. American psychologist, Volume 41, pp. 1040-1048.Dweck, L., 1988. A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological review, Volume 95, pp. 256-273.Eysenck, 1991. Dimensions of personality: 16: 5 or 3? Criteria for a taxonomic paradigm. Personality and individual differences, Volume 12, pp. 773-790.Feshbach, 1964. The function of aggression and the regulation of aggressive drive. Psychological review, 71(4), pp. 257-272.Fox, G. B. D. A., 1994. Children’s task and ego goal profiles in sport. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, Volume 64, pp. 253-261.Helgoe, L., 2008. Introvert power: why your inner life is hidden strength. s.l.:s.n.Hollander, 1967. Kent, 2006. the oxford dictionary of sports science and medicine. In: s.l.:Oxford University Press.Lewin, K., 1936. Principles of Topological Psychology. s.l.:s.n.Nicholls, 1984. Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological review, Volume 91, pp. 328-346.Vallerand, G. A. B., 2010. Influence of coaches’ autonomy support on athletes’ motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychology of sport and exercise, Volume 11, pp. 155-161.Self Confidence & Self Efficacy Word Count – 800Self-efficacyPerformance of an athlete is not solely dependent on physical ability, it is also affected by the performers belief in their ability, for example your best server may score less aces than a less capable server if they don’t believe they could succeed and therefore attempt the skill. This is an example of low self-efficacy affecting performance. Self-efficacy was defined by Bandura as one’s belief of “how well one can execute courses of action required to deal with prospective situations” (Bandura, 1982). The relationship between self-efficacy and sport performance was shown in a meta-analysis by Moritz as an average positive correlation, noting that task difficulty and performance measures affected the level at which self-efficacy affected performance (Moritz, 2000). It has also been shown that the level of self-efficacy also affects both the initiation and persistence of an individual (Bandura, 1977) making it important in challenging matches or when training a difficult skill. Based on this evidence, increasing self-efficacy would help maintain a high level of effort resulting in more effective training and more reflective results in fixtures. Bandura outlined four key sources contributing to one’s self-efficacy in his original model (Bandura, 1977). The first being ‘mastery experiences’, personal experience in a task e.g. scoring with a forehand in an open final. The second is ‘vicarious experiences’, observing the experiences of others, seeing similar ability athletes succeed giving a feeling of ‘if they can do it so can I’ e.g. seeing a training partner master a new skill. The third is ‘verbal persuasion’, where influential people persuade the athlete to believe they are capable and/or giving the motivation to put in the effort to improve e.g. positive feedback by role models leading to increased effort in in training. The fourth is ’emotional and physiological state’, having the most understandable link to performance, an athlete suffering from an illness will have lower confidence than an athlete a fully fit athlete. Sports-confidenceWhile Bandura emphasizes the individual’s belief and expectation of performance/outcome of a specific task (efficacy), other key researchers emphasis the individual as a whole. One key researcher uses self-confidence as opposed to self-efficacy, defining it as “the belief that one has the internal resources, particularly abilities, to achieve success” (Vealey, 2008,2009). Vealey’s model (Vealey, 1986) proposes that two factors, trait confidence: an innate personality trait of the individual’s belief of ability across a wide range of activities, and competitive orientation: a measure of how prepared the individual is to compete, as well as the type of goal set (performance or product), both affect state confidence, the individual’s belief about their ability leading to success in a particular moment. State confidence then determines the behavioural response, the subjective outcome of which acts as a form of feedback affecting trait confidence and competitive orientation e.g. failure results in a depressed trait confidence/competitive orientation and vice-versa. Evidence has shown that ‘elite athletes consider confidence as a major factor affecting performance through their thoughts, behaviours and feelings’ (Hays, 2009) and it is believed this effect is shown in amateur athletes as well, albeit for different reasons. Improving Self-Confidence/EfficacyIt is important to note that for performance to be positively affected, self-confidence/efficacy needs to be optimal, meaning that being too low or too high both have degrading effects. Too low and cognitive anxiety increases, which can lead to a severe drop in performance (Hardy, 1991), breaks in concentration/focus on negative aspects of performance, fragile state of motivation etc. Too high and they develop false confidence, leading to a refusal to take blame and lack of motivation to improve (over-confidence). By achieving optimal sports confidence, you can increase positive emotions in athletes, facilitate concentration, positively affect goal setting and game strategies as well as improve responses to perceived momentum.Strategies to improve Sports-Confidence/EfficacyAlongside her model of sports confidence, Vealey also proposed several strategies to help improve it. This included mastery of the skill. By showing progress has been made and by having the individual gain experience in successfully completing a skill, the individual then has evidence of ability, as well as providing positive performance accomplishments (Bandura, 1977). She also included physical and mental preparation, evidenced by high pre-competition confidence scores of wrestlers (Gould, 1992) and social reinforcement, minimizing confidence loss due to failure and maximizing gain due to success (Harter, 1978). Other strategies include attribution retraining. By changing what an athlete believes is the cause of failure is, from internal (effort or skill) to external (task difficulty or luck) you can avoid learned helplessness and promote mastery orientation (Weiner, 1985). Goal setting is also an effective method, by following the ‘SMART’ goal framework, (Lawlor, 2012) which allows individuals to see progress as well as experiencing success to help boost motivation and confidence, which is especially effective when self-regulated (Schunk, 1990).ReferencesBandura, 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84(2), pp. 191-215.Bandura, 1982. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American psychologist, 37(2), pp. 122-147.Gould, E. J., 1992. 1988 U.S. Olympic Wrestling Excellence: I. Mental Preparation, Precompetitive Cognition, and Affect. The sports psychologist, 6(4).Hardy, P., 1991. A catastrophe model of anxiety and performance. British journal of psychology, Volume 82, pp. 163-178.Harter, 1978. Effectance motivation reconsidered: Toward a developmental model. Human Development, Volume 21, pp. 34-64.Hays, 2009. The role of confidence in world-class sport performance. Journal of sports science, 27(11), pp. 1185-1199.Lawlor, H., 2012. HOW THE APPLICATION OF SMART GOALS CAN CONTRIBUTE TO ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES. Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 39.Moritz, F. F. M., 2000. The Relation of Self-Efficacy Measures to Sport Performance: A Meta-Analytic Review. Research quaterly for exercise and sport, 71(3), pp. 280-294.Schunk, 1990. Goal setting and self-efficacy during self-regulated learning. Educational psychologist, Volume 25, pp. 71-86.Vealey, 1986. Vealey’s sport specific model of confidence. Journal of sport psychology, 8(3), pp. 221-246.Vealey, C., 2008,2009. Self confidence in sport. Advances in sport psychology, pp. 66-97.Weiner, 1985. An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological review, 92(4), pp. 548-573.Eating disorders in sport Word Count – 804Two contemporary issues in sport are eating disorder and disordered eating. Similar in name but different in meaning. Disordered eating is defined as undertaking unhealthy dietary behaviours including forced expulsion of food, binge eating, attempts to lose weight when already underweight and use of ‘crash’ dieting on a regular basis (Grigg, 1996), without being classified as an eating disorder. An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by “abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person’s physical or mental health” (Association-American-Psychriatry, 2013), and require diagnosis. The most prevalent include anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.Prevalence of disordered eatingThe prevalence of disordered eating in different sports changes dramatically in a standard western culture; for weight class sports such as boxing the prevalence is 10%, for endurance 17% and for anti-gravitational sports such as gymnastics 42% (Rosedahl, 2009). A comparison of high-intensity sports (emphasising leanness and weight) with other types of sports showed a drop from 17.2% to 5% (males) and from 32% to 16% (females) in similar level ball sports and 4% (males) and 17% (females) in technical/precision sports. On average, elite athletes have a significantly higher percentage of disordered eating in both males and females (8%/22%) than non-athlete populations (0.5%/10%) (Sundgot-Borgen, 2004). Prevalence of eating disordersDue to the need for diagnostic, the number of cases recorded may not accurately represent the true number of cases either due to lack of diagnostic or misleading information submitted by participants of surveys based on the Social Desirability Bias (Fisher, 1993). However, there is evidence showing a figure of 16% of elite, middle and long-distance runners (female) suffering from a diagnosed eating disorder (7 from anorexia nervosa, 2 from bulimia nervosa and 20 from eating disorders not otherwise specified EDNOS) while 6 had been treated for an eating disorder previously (Hulley, 2001). Research to show how male statistics stack up against female statistics can be seen by Sundgot-Borgen and Martinsen. ‘From 34 athletes who met the criteria of symptomatic, 73.5% were diagnosed with EDNOS (20 females, 5 males), 23.5% with BN (7 females, 1 male), and 2.9% with AN (1 female, 0 males)’ (Sundgot-Borgen, 2013).Symptoms and health risksThe diagnostic criteria in the DSM-V for anorexia nervosa includes; refusal to maintain a body mass deemed ‘normal’ for height and weight, intense fear of gaining weight/being considered fat (even though underweight), disrupted view of self-e.g. serious denial of current body mass (Association-American-Psychriatry, 2013). Other symptoms can include; brittle nails and hair, fatigue, lanugo, intolerance to cold, hypotension, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Behavioural signs include; meal or eating rituals, obsession with calorific content, obsession with weighing (food and self), refusal to eat in public and excessive exercise especially around eating (Hoeksema, 2013) (Marzola, 2013) (Walsh, 2000). The diagnostic criteria in the DSM-V for bulimia nervosa includes; recurrent binge eating, regular purging behaviours/compensatory behaviours, and self-evaluation based on body shape/mass (Association-American-Psychriatry, 2013). Symptoms can be similar to those for anorexia and can also include; gastric reflux after eating, dehydration, calluses on knuckles/ back of hand, dental erosion, and damage/inflammation of the oesophagus/mouth. Behavioural signs include; obsession with calories consumed, obsession with one’s weight, frequent consumption of abnormal portion sizes, regular visits to the toilet after eating, and use of dietary medication (Mehler, 2003) (Mehler, 2004) (Wynn, 1984). Both are associated with depression, anxiety, isolation and self-harming/suicidal tendencies among other mood disorders. Both eating disorders can lead to serious health implications such as organ failure (especially renal due to imbalance of electrolytes and lack of water) as well as weak cardio-vascular and respiratory systems leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease i.e. heart failure. It also has been linked to the development of diabetes due to binge eating episodes. In women a major health effect is amenorrhea resulting in infertility and further facilitation of osteoporosis (Grigg, 1996). Muscle loss and weakness also, leading to a direct effect on performance. Brittle bones and fatigue also greatly increase the risk of injury. The concurrent mood and anxiety disorders would also effect effort and participation.TreatmentOne treatment is cognitive-behavioural-therapy (Fairburn, 1981), a talking therapy, which aims to alter the irrational beliefs and attitudes of the patient through teaching of effective coping strategies, establishing a pattern of appropriate food intake and forming of positive associations from previously negative e.g. positive reinforcement when weight is gained instead of lost. The most effective from of treatment is prevention, which includes regular check-ups, screenings and interventions including providing nutritional advice/ education. Dealing with both stress and emotional issues is also important as they are often tied to the disorder. There are many ways to help treat eating disorders as there is no one cure, but it is important for any treatment to be agreed with by the patient, to consist of close monitoring and an importance of treatment over training (Sundgot-Borgen, 2003).ReferencesAssociation-American-Psychriatry, 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5 ed. s.l.:American Psychiatric Publishing.Fairburn, 1981. A cognitive behavioural approach to the treatment of bulimia. Psychological medicines , 11(4), pp. 707-711.Fisher, 1993. social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning. journal of consumer research , 20(2), p. 303.Grigg, B. R., 1996. Disordered Eating and Unhealthy Weight Reduction Practices among adolecent females. preventative medicine, Volume 25, pp. 748-756.Hoeksema, 2013. Abnormal psychology. s.l.:s.n.Hulley, H., 2001. Eating disorders and health in elite women distance runners. International journal of eating disorders, 30(3).Marzola, N. S. K., 2013. Nutritional rehabilitation in anorexia nervosa: review of the literature and implications for treatment. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1).Mehler, 2003. “Bulimia nervosa”. The new england journal of medicine, 349(9), pp. 875-881.Mehler, C. W., 2004. “bulimia: medical complications”. Journal of womens health, 13(6), pp. 668-675.Rosedahl, B. A. A. S., 2009. Dieting and disordered eating in German high school athletes and non-athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(5), pp. 731-739.Sundgot-Borgen, M., 2013. Higher Prevalence of Eating Disorders among Adolescent Elite Athletes than Controls. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(6), pp. 1188-1197.Sundgot-Borgen, T., 2003. The female athlete triad – the role of nutrition. journal of sports medicine.Sundgot-Borgen, T., 2004. Prevalence of eating disorders in elite athletes is higher than the general population. Clinical journal of sports medicine, Volume 14, pp. 25-32.Walsh, W. F., 2000. Detection, evaluation, and treatment of eating disorders the role of the primary care physician. Journal of general internal medicine , 15(8), pp. 577-590.Wynn, M. M., 1984. A physical sign of bulimia. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 59(10), p. 722.