. Part 1. Comparison Research questions and sample

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Part 1. Comparison                                                                                Research questions and sample I: Carvalho
and De Silva (2006), examined the typological distance and order of acquisition
in the context in which Spanish-English bilingual students, whose first
language is English or Spanish are learning Portuguese as a third language
(L3). The researchers aimed to answer the research question of how do learners
of Portuguese as an L3 go about selecting a grammatical form in the L2 over the
one from the L1. Participants
in this study were sixteen college learners of intermediate level of
Portuguese, and none of them had any living experience in a Portuguese speaking
country. These 16 students were divided into two groups according to their L1.                                Method I: The
researches decided to use self-reported data that were collected by means of
think-aloud protocols and stimulated recalls in order to add participants’
perspectives to the researchers’ analysis and interpretation. As the
researchers indicated, the use of self-report data in studies of transfer has
played a significant to provide the study with the learners’ reflections which
had shed light on some of the complexities of crosslinguistic influence. Each
participant was given two pedagogical tasks in Portuguese during individual
sessions. The nature of these tasks were completion, think-aloud, and
retrospective interviews. Participants reacted to prompts that required the
writing of sentences using either present or future subjunctive.                                                                                                                    Findings I: the researchers compared the subject groups’ use of
present and future subjunctive in the controlled task and demonstrated that the
results have shown that both groups had relied heavily on Spanish when they
were preforming the present and future subjunctive tasks. Showing that the
Spanish transfer allowed native English speakers to arrive at target-like forms
more successfully than native Spanish speakers did. The researchers’
interpretation of this result is that native English speakers have higher
degree of metalinguistic awareness than the native Spanish speakers do in the
study, which stems from the native English speakers’ explicit attention to
Spanish structure and their application of learning strategies used in their
earlier acquisition of Spanish. Moreover, the data revealed that native
speakers of Spanish who acquired an L2 in an immersion context also relied on
their Spanish; however, they do so more intuitively and less accurately. The
overall results of Carvalho and De Silva’s study showed that that there is
evidence that linguistic similarity between the languages overrides order of
acquisition, because participants in both groups transferred mostly from
Spanish because Spanish is closer to Portuguese than English, the researchers
stated that it is plausible to conclude that language distance matters more
than order of acquisition. Besides, the influence from an L2 is favored if the
L3 is typologically close to the L2, even more so if the L1 is more distant.                                                                                                 Research question and sample II: Koike
and Palmiere (2011), examined the transfer of L1 and L2 pragmatic expression
which realized in the request speech act by Spanish-speaking who are learning
Portuguese as a third language. The researchers aimed to answer the research
question, which asked if learners differ in the transfer of pragmatic knowledge
from the L1 and L2. The researchers of this study investigate the learning
processes involved in beginning L3 Portuguese by (28 Spanish speaking
participants) whose have Spanish as an L1 (Native Spanish Speakers), as an L2
or foreign language (Native English Speakers), or as a heritage language (Native
Spanish Heritage).                                                   Method II: in this study, participants
were divided into three groups based on their language background and asked to
respond orally in Portuguese to  five situation
of speech act including requests and apologies in two different contexts (i.e.
formal and informal). In this study, the researchers displayed the data results
by using the Pearson chi-square analysis to show the relationship between the
learner groups and the commands variable.                                                                                      Findings II: the
findings indicated that native Spanish speakers showed the most significant
influence from Spanish at the single-word level, more than the two other groups
as a tendency to rely on both languages but principally from their L1 Spanish. The
researchers noted that the native Spanish speakers group, relied on their
Spanish, which showed evidence that it is not L1 or L2 that is the most
influential in the learners’ oral pragmatic production but rather the language
most similar to the L3 that most influences the three groups efforts, which
concludes that the learners’ language at this early stage is guided mainly by
the similarities between the Spanish and Portuguese languages observed by the
learners, regardless of whether the Spanish is the L1 or L2.                                                                                               The
two articles shared the same conclusion that learners do not always transfer easily
in the all linguistic categories even when the L1 and L2 are very similar (i.e.
as the case of Spanish and Portuguese), showing that the transfer process
appears to be quite complex in its use. Both articles did not identify its
limitations and was implemented based on responding to pervious research’s calls
and make a call for further research to continue investigating their inquiry to
gain more accurate and reliable results.