Parkinson’s the 1880s william growers wrote an important

Parkinson’s disease has a rich and complex history with the disease first being mentioned in ancient times.  In ancient india Parkinsons was described in texts dating back to 1000 B.C; In those texts they parkinsions was referred to as ayurveda. The next time parkinsons was mentioned was around 1000 AD in a medical journal written by a physician simply named galenl. In this journal Parkinsons was referred to as “shaking palsy” and the descriptions given were very similar to the symptoms that are described today. Over 700 years later in 1817 the first detailed study about parkisions was published by doctor James Parkinson and was titled “an essay on the shaky palsy”. This essay contained descriptions of the diseases that were base on 6 case studies. This essay was crucial in establishing parkinson’s as a widely recognized medical condition. 60 years later martian charles started researching “shaky palsy” using doctor james parkinson’s research as an influence. in Martian charles’ research he helped distinguish parkinsion from similar neurological diseases. He also renamed the disease from “shaky palsy” to parkinsion in honor of James parkinson. Over the next couple years research of parkinson’s was very active and prevalent. In the 1880s william growers wrote an important study of parkinson’s in ” manual of diseases of the nervous system. In that manual he described the tremors as “The movement of the fingers at the metacarpal-phalangeal joints is similar to that by which Orientals beat their small drums”. Again 1895 a pair of researches named richer and meige studied sufferers of parkinson’s and provided detailed drawings/statues based on their subjects. At the end of the 19th century parkinson’s research started to slow down and researchers started to focus on different diseases. In 1950 research started to pick up again and in 1953 two scientist named greenfield and bosanquet preformed a pathologic analysis (which is a process that is concerned with diagnosis of a disease by analyzing of blood, urine and tissue). using the analysis and knowledge they already knew they seperated parkinson’s into different stages. Probably the most important discovery in parkinson’s history was made in 1960. In 1960 researchers found that people with parkinson’s had a lack of dopamine producing cells that caused a chemical imbalance in the brain. With this breakthrough researchers started trying to develop a way to re-introduce dopamine into the brain. Eventually researchers created the first successful parkinson’s drug, levodopa, which is still the most effective method for treating parkinson’s. Since 1960 research has remained steady and multiple new therapies have been developed that help increase the amount dopamine in the brain.Although parkisions has a complex history the disease itself is very complex. As stated earlier parkinson’s is caused by the lack of dopamine producing cells in the brain. The reason dopamine matters is that it acts as a messenger between the substantia and corpus striatum, two parts of the brain that when they communicate they produces smooth and controlled movements. If there is not enough dopamine in the brain  the communication between the substantia and corpus striatum becomes hindered and the body’s motor skills becomes impaired. Along with decreased coordination and motor skills there are multiple other symptoms associated with parkinson’s. Symptoms are broken up into two categories, primary and secondary. Primary symptoms most likely occur in later stages in parkinson’s when 60-80 percent of dopamine producing cells have been lost. Primary symptoms can include, tremors, stiffness, slowness, impaired balance. All of these symptoms can be treated through therapy but none can be cured. Secondary symptoms happen in the early stages of parkinson’s and they can be used to detect parkinson’s early.  Secondary symptoms include anxiety, depression,and  dementia; Not everybody will experience these symptoms and they vary in severity. All these symptoms can be treated in multiple ways but none of them can be gotten rid of completely.In order to develop good treatment strategies and sustain a high quality of live diagnosing parkinson’s early is crucial. There is no test that can diagnose parkinson’s with certincy, but there are multiple tests that can be performed which help create a diagnosis. These tests are difficult to use in early stages of parkinson’s because most the tests are based on primary symptoms. After parkinson’s is diagnosed there are multiple therapies that can be administered in order to increase dopamine levels. All therapies that are used to treat parkinson’s try to increase the amount of dopamine in the brain by either replacing, mimicking, or prolonging dopamine. The first and most effective therapy is a drug call levodopa which when consumed is converted to dopamine in the brain. Although levodopa is effective it has some nasty side effects including painful cramps and involuntary movements. In order to reduce these side effects doctors prescribe carbidopa, this doesnt fully get rid of the side effect but it definitely helps. If parkonsions is caught in its earlier stages doctors can try an alternate method of theropie by using stem cells to reproduce dopamine producing cells. This method can be successful but it is also very controversial. There are also surgical procedures that are really only an option for people in advanced stages of parkinson’s. These surgical procedures stimulate the parts of the brains that control motor functions, doing this is a last resort for many people as after the surgery you motor skills only increases slightly. All these therapies can be effective in reducing the symptoms of parkinson’s; Even if these therapies can be effective parkinson’s cannot be cured and people who have the disease struggle with it for the rest of their lives.