Name: weight so to express the relationship between

Name: XingChen Yang

Student number:17343774

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Date:5/1/2018

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Essay
title: Genetically obese

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Obesity,
is a certain degree of obviously overweight and fat layer overthick, is the
body fat, especially triglyceride accumulation too much and resulting in a state.
Weight is one of the important indicators to measure obesity, and weight and
height, height and weight so to express the relationship between body mass
index commonly used the weight (kg)/height (m), according to the survey,
children’s normal body mass index was 15.5 ~ 21.2;The normal body mass index of
young men and women aged 15 to 19 is 18~22;Over 20 years old is 20~24.If the
children’s body mass index is greater than 21,15 ~19 years old  more than 22 or 20 years old, it is overweight.
If the child body mass index exceeds 22,15 ~19 years old more than 24, over 20
years old more than 26, is obese. (National heart ,lung,and boold
institute, 2018)

 A study published on the Lancet on April
2, 2016, collected data from 1975 to 2014, providing an overall picture of the
BMI trend in adults so far. Studies show that despite the fact that many people
in the world’s poorest areas are still underweight, obesity is outnumbered on a
global scale. Over the past 40 years, there has been an astounding increase in
the number of obese people worldwide: from 165 million in 1975 to 6141 million
in 2014. The number of adults with obesity in the world now exceeds those who
are underweight, while the number of obese
people in China ranks first in the world. (Institute
for
Health Metrics and Evaluation, 2018)

Apart from living habits,
obesity is also related to genes. A new study published by the
journal Nature Genetics published by University of Oxford scientists confirmed
that there is a direct correlation between an overly active “cellulite and
obesity related gene” (FTO) and obesity and overdose. The new study confirms
a 2007 study with conclusive evidence. (Fawcett & Barroso, 2010)That is, a genetic
variant of FTO is associated with an increased risk of obesity. The study found
that 16% of all Europeans who own two FTO variants have an average body weight
of 3 kilograms more than the average person without these two gene variants.
Scientists use biotechnology to develop experimental mice with extra FTO genes.
The results showed that although the nursery mice were healthy, their appetite
was much larger and their body was more obese. They were bigger than the
average experimental mice. The researchers found that after 20 weeks, the
female mice with two FTO genes gained 22% more body weight than normal female
mice, whereas the male mice with both FTO genes gained 10% more body weight
than the other male mice. Researchers believe there is such a link between
human obesity and the FTO gene. (Institute of Biology, Pasteur
Institute, Lille, France, 2007).Obesity has at least
the following “disadvantages.” First, causing bulky physical
activity, inconvenient activities and psychological barriers; second,
increasing spending on basic necessities and expenses; and third, bringing
about fatal diseases and even premature death. Among them, the most obesity
hazards can lead to a series of serious complications, such as hypertension,
diabetes, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, cancer, these diseases are the
main killer of human health. In general, obesity itself is not fatal, but the
complications of obesity, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and high
blood pressure, actually reduce the longevity. (GA, 1996)

Obesity is also a sign
mutations or chromosomal abnormalities caused by several genetic syndromes,
such as Prader-Willi and Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Prader-Willi syndrome
(PWS) is caused by a chromosomal abnormality in the 15q11-q12 chromosomal
region. Characterized
by central nervous system dysfunction caused by excessive appetite caused by
early onset of obesity. Bardet-Biedl’s syndrome (BBS) is a hereditary
disorder characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance that is highly
heterogeneous. The patient may have obesity, polydactyly, retinal atrophy,
gonadal hypoplasia, kidney malformations and learning difficulties after birth.
In
these syndromes, obesity is often accompanied by mental retardation, genital
abnormalities or other problems. (U,S.National Library of Medicine,
2018)

The impact of genetic factors
on obesity is multifaceted, mainly in the following points: 1. Genetic factors
affect the body mass index, subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral adipose
tissue, and the impact on visceral fat is particularly significant. 2. Genetics
not only affects the degree of obesity, but also the type of fat distribution.
3. Reactivity after overfeeding, ie, the sensitivity of weight gain after
overfeeding, is genetically determined. 4. Genetically affect the individual’s
basal metabolic rate, the thermal effect of food and the thermal effect of
exercise, that is, the expenditure of energy is affected by genetic factors,
and the difference in energy expenditure among individuals can reach more than
40%. 5. People’s intake of protein, carbohydrates and fat ratio may be affected
by the genetic. 6. How much physical activity is also significantly affected by
the genetic. (Walley, Blakemore, & Froguel,
2006)
So
when you feel obese, you may want to go to the hospital to get a fat gene test.

However, do not be afraid when
you find yourself having obesity genes. Healthy environments and lifestyles can
counteract gene-related risks. First, Eating habits. Studies have shown that
excluding gene influence, obese children’s family eating habits as their BMI
index increased the most important reason. In the case of heroin hereditary
obesity caused by obesity in her parents, she is also greatly affected by poor
eating habits. Visible, a good diet, not only to change individuals, but also
rejuvenate the entire family. The things you eat determine your body
composition in a sense, so stay away from obesity and start with your mouth. (Department of
Clinical Experimental Endocrinology, Medical University of Gda?sk, 2013)Second, Exercise
habits. Every person’s daily life will consume a certain number of calories,
your energy metabolism level in addition to heredity, more depends on your
physical activity, choose to walk or ride, choose outdoor fitness or
house-chase, choose after-meal walk or sit play mobile phone. Your every choice
is to form the future of the body bit by bit, before choosing to tell yourself
that your body by your own grasp. Over the past few decades, the
global increase in the prevalence of obesity has been paralleling the trend
toward shorter sleep times in adults and children. A study by Stanford
University in the United States found that people who sleep less than or equal
to 4.5 hours have a higher association with obesity than those who sleep for 6
to 8 hours. A Spanish study also pointed out that people who sleep less than or
equal to 5 hours have a 1.33-fold risk of developing obesity less than 7 hours
of sleep. So, get up early and get up early can also be used as a secret to
lose weight, give up before bedtime meaningless playing mobile phones and
games, give yourself a chance to slim down. (Beccuti & Pannain, 2013)

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Beccuti, G., & Pannain, S. (2013, April 22). Sleep
and obesity. Retrieved January 3, 2018, from US National Library of
Medicine : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3632337/
Department of Clinical
Experimental Endocrinology, Medical University of Gda?sk. (2013, March 19). Bad
eating habits as the main cause of obesity among children. Retrieved
January 3, 2018, from US National Library of Medicine:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25577898
Fawcett, K. A., &
Barroso, I. (2010, June 26). The genetics of obesity: FTO leads the way.
Retrieved January 2, 2018, from US National Library of Medicine :
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2906751/
GA, B. (1996, December 25). Health
hazards of obesity. Retrieved January 2, 2018, from National Center for
Biotechnology Information: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8977052
Institute for Health Metrics
and Evaluation. (2018, January 2). Overweight and Obesity Viz.
Retrieved January 2, 2018, from Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation:
http://www.healthdata.org/data-visualization/overweight-and-obesity-viz
Institute of Biology,
Pasteur Institute, Lille, France. (2007, May 13). Variation in FTO
contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesity. Retrieved
January 2, 2018, from National Center for Biotechnology Information:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17496892?dopt=Citation
National heart ,lung,and
boold institute. (2018, January 2). Calculate Your Body Mass Index.
Retrieved January 4, 2018, from National heart ,lung,and boold institute:
https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm
U,S.National Library of
Medicine. (2018, January 1). Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Retrieved January
2, 2018, from U,S.National Library of Medicine: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/bardet-biedl-syndrome
Walley, A. J., Blakemore, A.
I., & Froguel, P. (2006, October 15). Genetics of obesity and the
prediction of risk for health. Retrieved January 3, 2018, from Oxford
academic: https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article/15/suppl_2/R124/626082