Introduction: 100m and 200mare usually needed 10sec –

Sprinting is an activity that an athlete needs to use full of his/her energy to run in short distances which is 100m, 200m and of course 400m. The 100m and 200mare usually needed 10sec – 15sec to finish the race, for the 400m, it needs below 1 minute to complete the race. Originally sprinters used a standing start but after few years a crouched position is formed by using a device called starting blocks to support their feet. (Michaliek, 2017)
Stages of sprinting:
? Acceleration: According to (USA Track & Field, 2008) and (Percia, 2011), once the sprinter takes off form the starting blocks, they will begin to accelerate initially from a complete rest position by increasing stride frequency and stride length. An explosive force production of the legs in a very short time is vital for a successful start. After that, the length of this stage can be somewhere in the range of 30 to 50m among tops sprinters during a 100m sprint race. During increasing speed, the foot makes contact with the tracks below the hips or slightly behind, the leg is then a pushing action down the track. Think oppositely, a bigger push might be affect the athlete’s speed because the bigger the pushes, the longer the ground contact time. In addition, the arm action is also important during acceleration action because a strong, big and complete movement of upper body are essential to build up momentum. Therefore, the sprinter should drive the elbows front – the hands should not get higher than the chin and imagine that you wanted to button the shirt; and the back- the elbows should swing as high as the shoulder.
? Full-speed running: While full speed running, the athlete will lean forward without noticed. A perfect position is often maintained in a fully upright position because there is no need to change directions in sprint races. At full speed, every athlete has to maintain its own tempo by finding the right balancing of stride frequency and stride length. In addition, decreasing ground contact time in this phase was very important and dorsiflexing the feet helps to enhance fast ground contact because the lesser the time, the lesser the stabilizing. The foot contacts with the track in front of the body and the locomotion action is a pull with the hamstring and glutes. When one foot has steps over, the other foot was brought up quickly to make sure the level of the free leg as short as possible. Besides that, athletes should not use too much time with back leg thus, a proper hip posture helps to create an elastic reaction at the hip.
? Running fast in a State of Fatigue: when athletes do not have enough speed endurance, they should not change their techniques because this may increase the risk of injuries and their performances level will drop too. After that, hard workouts and other competition should not be participated by them to avoid muscles tightness and bad postures. When athletes have come to the end of the race, the coaches should not let them to over stride, it may cause a braking action and this action is very dangerous because it may give big impact to the knees, ankle and other parts. As you can see that over striding may cause common mistakes such as making the ground contact time longer, leads to braking action and over putting excessive pressure on the hamstring and glutes. It also causes the knees muscles’ ability to decrease to absorb shock by straighten the knee and more aggressive heel strike. Thus, the longer the stride length, the amount of vertical displacement increase, the harder for the athletes to land on the track.

Factor affecting speed:
According to (Myles, n.d.), there are five factor that affects our speed is clothing and shoes. A proper clothing foe woman such as sport bra might help women to fits properly to reduce breast movement and remove uncomfortable. In addition, a proper footwear for all ages will help to reduce impact that running places on our body and also allow us to run with greater ease and speed up in no time. For example: nowadays, customize running shoes is designed to help the elite athletes to reduce more impact. Secondly, runner’s running form should be corrected if they are performing in the wrong position. While sprinting, we should hold our head high and back straight without leaning too forward. We must also bend our elbows in 90 degrees angle and open our palm (depend on individuals) to decrease air resistance. A perfect posture will help competitors to reduce body strain and minimizes muscle fatigue. Thirdly, speed endurance. This term alludes to the capacity of a competitor keeping up speed over an extraordinary separation. This could be a 200 meters sprinter or connected to a wide collector in football that must have the capacity to dash at least 60 yards without being gotten. For competitors who require speed continuance they should prepare properly. Tennis players require speed over short separations and are in an ideal situation performing drills that reproduce these short separations as opposed to performing 200m or 400m runs. Aerobic consuming limit is vital in speed continuance occasions as the body will abandon overwhelmingly the anaerobic vitality frameworks to the vigorous frameworks the more drawn out the run goes on. Competitors in soccer, swimming and cycling will all experience this. Fourthly, flexibility would also affect the running speed. Flexibility refers to the range of motion at a joint within the body. Lack of good flexibility might influence the athlete’s speed due to limitation of joint motion. For example, if the hamstring is extremely tight, athletes may not be able to bring up high the knee; the tightness of hip flexion limited the ability to extend the hip through the full ROM. In another way, good flexibility improves the athlete’s performances level and help them to have a greater speed to sprint. (Select, n.d.)
Ways to improve speed:
According to (, 2017), flexibility of athletes should be always considering because poor flexibility would lead to serious injuries and will influence the athlete’s skill technique during training season and competition. During warm up, which is slow jog for 5 to 10 min so that it helps body to increase the body temperature. After that, try to perform dynamic drills to loosen shoulder, hip and ankles. Doing sprinting drills like ankling, high knee, and butt kicks, B-skip and leg extension would also help to improve speed. Secondly, do some plyometric training would help athletes to boost up speed too. Those exercises such as squat box jump, lateral box jump, side-to-side box jump, hurdles hop, bounding and others are absolute suitable for those short distance athletes because it helps to decrease ground contact times, increase their stride frequency and at the same time it increases explosiveness. The stiffness of muscles and tendons will improve so that the energy used with each stride are more effectively and efficiently to increasing speed. Thirdly, sprinting form should be corrected during sprinting. An incorrect form will always affect an athlete’s performance. In addition, sprinting form can be divided into three phases which is drive, stride and lift. When sprinting, the vision should be look in front, arms should swing up and down in a 90 degrees angles, and knees should lift high and the open stride. Fourthly, strength training is a must for sprinter. Lunge workout would be the best workout for sprinter to do because it helps in stability, strength, hip mobility and focuses on each individual leg. You can try barbell lunges, dumbbell lunges and bodyweight lunges. All these may improve balancing on your leg. In addition, squat workout such as barbell back squat or air/goblet squat might be the second option for the athletes to increase speed because squat helps to strengthen trunk, hamstring and glutes and improve the athlete’s ability to recruit fast-twitch muscles fibres necessary for powerful locomotive.Description: Based on my graph shown above, the highest velocity is 10.87 m/s at 50 meters and the lowest velocity is 4.69 m/s at the first 10 meter. As you can see that my velocity starts to increase rapid from 4.69 m/s at 10m to 7.14 m/s at 20m then 7.87 m/s at 30 m. The velocity drops from 7.87 m/s to 7.52 m/s in 40m then increase again to 8.85 m/s 50m and 10.87 m/s in 60m. In 70m, my velocity decreases 5.19 m/s which is 5.68 m/s and then increase again to 8.13 m/s in 80m then decrease to 7.52 m/s in 90m and then increase to 7.69 m/s in 100m.Description: After I have done all the comparison about Maurice Greene’s velocity and mine, there is a huge difference is shown in the graph. For the Maurice Greene’s velocity, it starts to increase steadily from 10m until 100m, this means that he almost maintains his velocity for the entire 100m performance.Description: The acceleration results for Maurice Greene is increasing at the first 10 meter and 20m but then it decreasing nicely until the end. After that, for my acceleration results, it was not as nice as Maurice Greene’s’. You can see that mine was unbalance shaped, it first decreases from 10m to 40 m, then it increases in 60m. For the acceleration in 60m, it decreases from 2.21 m/s2 to -2.94 m/s2. In the 80m, the acceleration rises again to 1.99 m/s2, then drop to -0.5 m/s2 and lastly rise back to 0.14m/s2.
Discussion and Conclusion:
1. Comparison between my result and Maurice Greene
At the start of 100m sprinting, I was slightly faster than Maurice Greene which is 4.69m/s while his velocity is 5.38 m/s. A lower velocity makes me have a faster reaction time at the start of sprinting. Besides, this is why I was faster than Maurice Greene. As you can my velocity graph is different compared to the Maurice Greene, his velocity is increasing steadily but mine was increase and decrease. I am a sprinter but actually I have not been training for a long time ago. Because of this reason, my speed was increase and decrease throughout this sprint test. Since he is an elite sprinter, he was always concentrate on his training and get a better performance during training season or competition.
For the acceleration results, I have a slightly higher acceleration than Maurice Greene at the start of the sprinting which is 2.20m/s2 and I have faced imbalanced acceleration from 40m to 60m, my acceleration is increase while from 60m to 70m, my results drops, and from 70m to 80m my results was increasing again. Through this sprint test, I can know that acceleration of Maurice Greene has a steady and good acceleration but when compared to mine, the acceleration was not that good because I get fatigue faster. Moreover, Maurice Greene can finish the 100 meter sprinting without too much of deceleration since he was a well-trained sprinter.
2. Comparison between my results and the stages of sprinting:
a. Acceleration: During 30m to 50m, my acceleration was uneven decrease and increase because of my improper posture during running. My knees does not lifted up and my arm does not always swing at 90 degree angles so it may affect my performance badly. In the results of acceleration in 30m, my acceleration starts to decrease at negative value while in 50m, my acceleration increase back to positive value. However, for convenience for general conclusion, any motional change is said to be in acceleration.
b. Full-speed running: While sprinting, I have not maintain my tempo, my stride length and my stride frequency. Because of this reason, I might not perform well during my competition and I have to trained harder to correct my running posture and my ground contact time should be decrease so that I’ll be more stabilize.
c. Running fast in a State of Fatigue: At the end for the sprinting race, I think that my speed endurance was not strong enough for me because I have not training for a long time ago. Moreover, the stride length of mine was too short, my muscle tightness was not exactly relaxed and I did like to brake my feet when it comes to the end of the race. A braking action was not good for the athletes, it gives them a lot of impact for the knees and ankles.

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3. Questions and Answers:
a. When did the sprinter reach maximum velocity? Can you explain why it may have occurred at this distance?
? I have reached my maximum velocity at 60m which is 11.90m/s. This is where I have fastest ground contact time and this is why I can reached my maximum velocity at 60 m.
b. Where did the sprinter reach maximum acceleration? Can you explain why it may have occurred at this distance?
? I have reached my maximum acceleration at 60m which is 2.21m/s2. Therefore, I was able to get maximum acceleration at 60 m because I have used to right posture and technique for the same time.
c. Did the sprinter experience zero acceleration at any stage? What does the zero acceleration means?
? I did not experience zero acceleration at any stage. The meaning of zero acceleration is there is no changes in the velocity over time.
d. Did the sprinter experience negative acceleration at any stage?
? I did experience negative acceleration at stage 40m, 70m and 90m