IEEE 802 is a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area network
and metropolitan area network.
The services and protocols specified in IEE 802 map to the
lower two layers (data link layer and physical layer) of the OSI networking
IEEE 802.1 Bridging
LAN/MAN bridging and management. It covers management and
the lower sub-layers of OSI Layer 2, including MAC-based
bridging (Media Access Control), virtual LANs and port-based access
IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control
The technical definition for 802.2 is
“the standard for the upper Data Link Layer sublayer also known as the
Logical Link Control layer. It is used with the 802.3, 802.4, and 802.5
standards (lower DL sublayers).”
802.2 is concerned with managing traffic
over the physical network. It is responsible for flow and error control. The
LLC acts like a software bus allowing multiple higher layer protocols to access
one or more lower layer networks. For example, if you have a server with
multiple network interface cards, the LLC will forward packers from those upper
layer protocols to the appropriate network interface. This allows the upper
layer protocols to not need specific knowledge of the lower layer networks in
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet
Standard which Ethernet operates by. It is
the standard for CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Detection). This standard encompasses both the MAC and Physical Layer
Commonly, Ethernet networks transmit data
in packets, or small bits of information. A packet can be a minimum size of 72
bytes or maximum of 1518 bytes.
The most common topology for Ethernet is the
IEEE 802.4 Token Bus
Token bus is a network implementing the token
ring protocol over a “virtual
ring” on a coaxial cable. It
is mainly used for industrial applications. Due to difficulties handling device
failures and adding new stations to a network, token ring gained a reputation
for being unreliable and difficult to upgrade. The IEEE 802.4 Working Group is
disbanded and the standard has been withdrawn by the IEEE.
IEEE 802.5 Token Ring
Token Ring was developed primarily by IBM.
Token ring is designed to use the ring topology and utilizes a token to control
the transmission of data on the network.
original token-passing standard for twisted-pair, shielded copper cables.
Supports copper and fiber cabling from 4 Mbps to 100 Mbps. Often called
token is a special frame which is designed to travel from node to node around
the ring. When it does not have any data attached to it, a node on the network
can modify the frame, attach its data and transmit. Each node on the network
checks the token as it passes to see if the data is intended for that node, if
it is; it accepts the data and transmits a new token. If it is not intended for
that node, it retransmits the token on to the next node.
token ring network is designed in such a way that each node on the network is
guaranteed access to the token at some point. This equalizes the data transfer
on the network. This is different from an Ethernet network where each
workstation has equal access to grab the available bandwidth, with the possible
of a node using more bandwidth than other nodes.
ring can be run over a star topology as well as the ring topology. Initially,
token ring operated at a speed of about 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 802.5t allows for
100 Mbps speeds and 802.5v provides for 1 Gbps over fibber.
802.6 Distributed queue dual bus
Standard governed by the ANSI for Metropolitan area network (MAN). It is an improvement of an older standard
(also created by ANSI) which used the fibre distributed data
interface (FDDI) network structure. The
FDDI-based standard failed due to its expensive implementation and lack of
compatibility with current LAN standards. This
standard has also failed, mostly for the same reasons that the FDDI standard
802.7 Broadband LAN Practices
Covers broadband local area networks.
The working group did issue
a recommendation in 1989, but is currently inactive and in hibernation.
802.8 Fibre Optic Practices
The Fibre Optic Technical Advisory Group was to create a LAN standard for fibre optic media used in token passing computer
networks like FDDI. This was part of the IEEE 802 group of standards.
802.9 Integrated services LAN
Developed standards for integrated voice
and data access over existing Category 3 twisted-pair network cable
installations. Its major standard was usually known as isoEthernet.
There was some vendor support for
isoEthernet, but it lost in the marketplace due to the rapid adoption of Fast
Ethernet and the working group was disbanded.
802.10 Interoperable LAN security
A former standard for security functions that could be used in both LAN and MAN.
802.10 specifies security association
management and key management, as well as access
control, data confidentiality and data integrity.
802.11 Wireless Network standards
802.11 is the collection of standards setup
for wireless networking. This standard is divided into several standards, each
standard uses a frequency to connect to the network and has a defined upper
limit for data transfer speeds.
802.11a was one of the first wireless
standards operates in the 5Ghz radio band and can achieve a maximum of 54Mbps.
802.11b operates in the 2.4Ghz band and supports up to 11Mbps. 802.11g is a
standard in the 2.4Ghz band operating at 54Mbps. 802.11a is not directly
compatible with 802.11b or 802.11g since it operates in a different band.
Wireless standards operate within a
802.12 Demand Priority
Increases Ethernet data rate to 100Mbps by controlling
Unused, reserved for fast ethernet
802.14 Cable Modems
A cable modem is a type of network bridge that provides bi-directional data communication
via radio frequency channels on
a hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC)
and radio frequency over glass (RFoG)
infrastructure. Cable modems are primarily used to deliver broadband
internet access in the form of cable
internet taking advantage of the high bandwidth
of a HFC and RFoG network.
802.15 Wireless Personal
Specifies Wireless Personal Area Networks. There
are 10 major areas of development, not all of which are active.
802.15.1 Bluetooth Short
range (10m) wireless technology for cordless mouse, keyboard, and
hands-free headset at 2.4 GHz.
UWB Short range, high-bandwidth “ultra-wideband” link
802.15.4 ZigBee Short range
wireless sensor networks
Mesh Networks Extension of network coverage without increasing the
transmit power or the receiver sensitivity
IEEE 802.16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks
This family of standards covers Fixed and Mobile Broadband
Wireless Access methods used to create Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks
(WMANs.) Connects Base Stations to the Internet using OFDM in unlicensed (900
MHz, 2.4, 5.8 GHz) or licensed (700 MHz, 2.5 – 3.6 GHz) frequency bands.
Products that implement 802.16 standards can undergo WiMAX certification
IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring
A protocol standard designed for the
optimized transport of data traffic over optical fibre ring networks.
It is designed to provide the resilience found in SONET/SDH networks (50 ms protection) but, instead of
setting up circuit oriented connections, provides a packet based transmission,
in order to increase the efficiency of Ethernet and IP services.