CHAPTER which are the origin of terrorism in

                                                       CHAPTER TWO

2.0
INTRODUCTION

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          In this chapter of the research, there are
two headings majorly which are the origin of terrorism in Iraq where a brief
history of terrorism in Iraq would be given and also the way the various
terrorist groups in Iraq came to be including the reasons for their initial
creation. Secondly, in this chapter, the major terrorist groups in Iraq would
be focused on and a short documentary would be given on them and this includes
the major activities and significant moments of these groups.

 

2.1
HOW DID TERRORISM ORIGINATE IN IRAQ?

       INTRODUCTION

          Terrorism as we all have a knowledge
of, is an act of violence adopted by extremist (groups and individuals) to
achieve their goals through violence and force and the origin of this act in
the state of Iraq has religious extremists of the Islamic religion majorly who
are Islamists and islamofacists who practice radical Islam combined with
undemocratic institutions in such fashion that it creates a threat to the
neighborhood, and in concentric circle fashion and is such a threat to the
extent to which Iran develops a missile envelope that goes outward, and all of
a sudden it begins to encapsulate the American-European allies (in the middle
east) and eventually (sets its aims on) the United States itself. (PROF.
RAYMOND TANTER). REFERENCE:
Raymond Tanter, personal interview with Mike Evans, June 15, 2006. “CHAPTER
EIGHT: The Rise of Islamofacism” from the book “THE FINAL MOVE BEYOND IRAQ”

          Also in this section of the chapter
where the origin of terrorism in Iraq would be examined, it would be further
divided into two sections where the first would be what terrorism in Iraq
looked like before the invasion of Iraq by the US in 2003 and this section is wrapped
up with the greatest terrorist attack ever in human history “THE 9/11 ATTACK”
which killed almost 3,000 people and left several others with injuries and it
was named after the date the attack was launched against the US on September
11, 2001. The latter section would be dealing with the aftermath of the
invasion which led to a high rise in terrorism in Iraq where the nation
suffered about 14 years of gruesome terrorist acts from relatively 2003 to 2017
with critical moments in 2004, 2014, 2015 and 2016 and this section would also
talk a little on how this invasion connected to the birth of new terrorist
groups and alliances among terrorist groups which then leads ultimately to the
creation of ISIS.

 

2.1.1
TERRORISM IN IRAQ BEFORE THE 2003 INVASION

         In Iraq before 2003, terrorism was employed repeatedly over
times and several instances even before Saddam became the president of the
nation on the 16 July 1979 as
an element of its foreign policy in the past, at least since the 1980s, it has
carefully chosen its proxies and used them to pursue limited objectives.
Baghdad, however, has often failed when trying to use terrorist violence
successfully, suggesting that the regime’s own capabilities are limited.

Iraq supported several terrorist groups in the past. For
example, Baghdad has harbored the May 15 Organization, a Palestinian group
known for bombing airplanes and Iraq gave sanctuary to the Palestine Liberation
Front (PLF) infamous for the 1985 hijacking of the Achille Lauro and the murder
of Leon Klinghoffe also, Iraq helped form the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO),
using it to assassinate Syrian and Palestinian opponents. Most of Iraq’s
support to these groups has consisted of logistical support, such as bases,
training, and supplies. Nevertheless, the scale of its backing of terrorist
groups was dwarfed by others like Iran, which tried to create large popular
insurgencies from whole cloth.

Iraq has provided more extensive support to the
anti-Tehran Mujahedin-e Khalq (MEK)
and the anti-Turkey Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as means of exerting pressure
on their northern and eastern neighbors. In both cases, Iraq has helped these
groups establish a safe haven in Iraq itself where they could base their
guerrilla wars and plan terrorist attacks. Ties to the MEK are particularly
close, and it has in essence become a wholly owned proxy of Baghdad for use
against Iran. In recent times, ties between Iraq and these traditional
associates have declined or become less important a long time ago but the MEK remains
active, although the pace of its attacks against Iran has fallen off as Baghdad
has attempted to mend fences with Tehran. The PKK also has become far less
effective since the arrest of its leader, Abdullah Ocalan, in 1999.

The PLF has not pulled off a major attack since 1992,
despite the collapse of the Oslo Accords. ANO has been similarly inactive in
recent years, and in August 2002, Abu Nidal himself died in Baghdad in a
“suicide” that most suspect was Saddam’s effort to distance himself from
charges of harboring terrorists.

In general, Saddam distrusted what he couldn’t control,
thus Baghdad avoided close association with independent terrorist groups,
preferring to work with organizations that it could dominate. Iraq worked with
the Abu Nidal Organization and the PLF over which it exercised considerable
control, but never forged strong relationships with Fatah, Hezbollah, HAMAS, or
other groups with a strong independent base and so would never be subservient
to Baghdad. Even then, its support for ANO and PLF ebbed over time in favor of
groups like the MEK which were even more tightly controlled by Iraq.

Baghdad’s terrorism ties and involvement were not based
on ideology, Iraq has worked with Christians and Islamic fundamentalists, with
Persians and Kurds, with fellow Ba’thists and pure killers as long as they have
suited the regime’s interests nor is Saddam a loyal paymaster. Despite
Baghdad’s close working relationship with ANO, it did not hesitate to expel the
organization in 1983 to gain Western goodwill during its war with Iran.

Whenever it has sought to attack the United
States itself, Iraq has preferred to rely on its own operatives. Thus, Iraqi
agents were involved in attempted bombings of U.S. facilities in Indonesia, the
Philippines, and Malaysia during the first Gulf War. Similarly, Iraq used its
own people in the failed assassination of President Bush in 1993. Even though
ANO conducted numerous attacks against Americans during the 1970s and 1980s,
these were not believed to be at Baghdad’s behest.

Iraq’s terrorist operations in the past have
been startlingly inept. Former Director of Central Intelligence William Webster
noted that during the Gulf War the Iraqi intelligence officers used
sequentially numbered passports. As a result, once several officers were
arrested, the rest were easily discovered and detained. Nor have Iraqis hidden
their hands well. One of the bombers arrested in Southeast Asia even asked that
the Iraqi Embassy be notified of his detention. In 1993, the assassination team
in Kuwait used explosives similar to those of previous Iraqi operations and did
not practice phone security, making it easy to trace the origin of the plot.

         
Also, it can be said that before the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United
States, there have been activities of terrorism in the state because the then
president “SADDAM HUSSEIN” in the first place caught the attention of the US by
executing acts that can be categorized under terrorism such as providing bases,
training camps, and other support to terrorist groups fighting the governments
of neighboring Turkey and Iran, as well as to Palestinian terror groups and
also, the Bush administration which was categorized mainly by the fight against
terrorism because at the time of his tenure, terrorism was at its peak and
according to the Bush’s administration which claimed it believed Saddam could
pass weapons of mass destruction to Osama bin Laden’s Al-Qaeda network or other
terrorists although in the first few weeks after Saddam’s fall from power,
though convincing proof of an Iraq-al-Qaeda link remained lacking (IRAQI TIES
TO TERRORISM February 03, 2005). Although long before this, (WHAT TERRORISM WAS
LIKE IN IRAQ BEFORE SADDAM). But according to many analysts, it is being said
that the definite move to invade Iraq by the US was made certain by the 9/11
attacks on the US allegedly by an Al-Qaeda linked group and it was after the
invasion terrorism began to take a high rise in Iraq and prior to this was the
attack on the Kuwait oil wells which according to “””” said was aimed at
killing GEORGE W. BUSH. The invasion by the Bush’s administration was aimed at
dealing with terrorism because his time in office was characterized primarily
by the fight against terrorism because at the dawn of the 21st
century terrorism was when Bush happened to be in office of the top world
nation “USA” and when the fight against terrorism commenced, the fight was
taken to the world’s terrorism capital “Baghdad” in Iraq and as a result, it
led to Iraq being the world’s hotspot of terrorism according to various indexes
on countries most affected by terrorism where Iraq topped those listings in the
following years (LIST THE YEARS) with other middle eastern states following
behind not until about three years ago, an African country “NIGERIA” showed up
on the list as third because of the presence of another terrorist group in the
country by name “BOKO HARRAM”.

 

2.1.2
TERRORISM IN IRAQ AFTER THE 2003 INVASION

          Within a year after the invasion of
Iraq in March 2003 by the United States, there had been various attacks within
Iraq since then even after the US troops began to withdraw from Iraq in
December 2007 and finally in 2011 to end the Iraq war, there was a relatively
high level of terrorist acts in the country most especially in 2014 which was a
very bad year in regards to terrorism as stipulated by various indexes on
terrorism. But without diverging from the discourse, the activities that can be
considered acts of terrorism in Iraq since 2003 can be considered also to be
part of  a demonstration that the
presence of the US troops on Iraqi soil was not welcomed and as such there were
beckoning’s for a jihad in the state by prominent leaders of Islam for example
is one of the most respected analysts in the Arab world, Abdul Bari al-Atwan who
said  the US didn’t come to liberate Iraq
but rather to humiliate it and it would want to do so to other Arab states and
all the United States would get is resistance and hatred, thereby encouraging
further the resistance of the US troops in the state of Iraq resulting in
increased hostility towards the US troops from the Iraqi citizenry (Bodansky,
The Secret History of The Iraq War, 9). Also, another entity who propelled the
hostility towards the west was the renowned terrorist and leader of the Al-Qaeda
network (Osama Bin Laden) who encouraged acts of terrorism such as suicide
bombings by giving such addresses as ” the reward of those who help in
eliminating the “infidels” thereby contributing to the liberation course of the
Islamic state would be rewarded by Allah” and this is not right according to
the doctrines of the Islamic religion because the doctrines of the religion
does not support the killing of innocent people in war.

          In order to push the US out of Iraq because
the Arabs felt along with the fight for liberation the US brought to Iraq came
also democracy and this was alien to the practices of the Islamic state of Iraq
as stated by the then president of the United States President W. Bush who in
an address at the White House on the 8th of November 2001 made the following
statement “This new enemy seeks to destroy our freedom and I pose its views. We
value life; the terrorists ruthlessly destroy it. We value education; the
terrorists do not believe women should be educated or should have health care,
or should leave their homes. We value the right to speak our minds; for the
terrorists, free expression can be ground for execution. We respect people of
all faiths and welcome the free practice of religion; our enemy wants to
dictate how to think and how to worship even to their fellow Muslims.” Going to
show that there is no atom of democratic practice in the Islamic state of Iraq
and  therefore, the following months
after the invasion, Islamic brethren who would carry out terrorist attacks and
become members of the terrorist groups that would later be formed trooped into
Iraq to answer the call for the holy war which was aimed to make the
introduction of democracy into the Islamic state impossible, through various
acts of  terrorism such as (  ) and the acts of terrorism such as suicide
bombing, killing of the US troops among others were encouraged by Osama Bin
Laden who was seen in the light of a leader at the time by Islamic brethren of
the same philosophy which is () and there have been various publications of
Osama addressing his fellow terrorist and encouraging them to take part in the
great ideological war by him saying such things as (QUOTE THE BOOK).  

“We are in dire need of you…. The
field of jihad can satisfy your scientific ambitions, and large American bases
(in Iraq) are good places to test your unconventional weapons, whether
biological or dirty, as they call them” ABU AYYUB AL-MASRI
leader of AL-Qaeda in Iraq, in a call for experts in the fields of “chemistry,
physics, electronics, media and all other sciences especially nuclear
scientists and explosives experts” to join the terror group’s holy war against
the West.

          After the invasion of Iraq in 2003
the following took place and therefore led Iraq to the point where it is at the
moment as a state such as:

1.      Creation
of terrorist groups

2.       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.2
WHAT ARE THE TERRORIST GROUPS WHO HAVE BY THEIR ACTIVITIES ADVERSELY AFFECTED THE
SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF IRAQ AS A STATE?

       INTRODUCTION

          In this part of the chapter, as noted in
the introduction as the second aspect of the chapter where the major terrorist
groups in Iraq would be documented and discussed alongside their terrorist acts
and how these acts have affected the development of Iraq as a state
socio-economically. Majorly, the terrorist groups that have come to play in the
terrorism sphere of Iraq can be considered basically to be two “AL-QAEDA” and
“ISIS or ISIL” but some other groups within the state of Iraq who have promoted
violence in the state and can be considered as terrorist groups as a result of
their violent acts are the SHIITE, SUNNI and the KURDISTAN Muslims.

 

2.2.1
THE AL-QAEDA NETWORK

          Here the terrorist organization
“AL-QAEDA” and its affiliate organizations would be concentrated on and
discussed briefly.

          Al-Qaeda was formed in 1988 by Osama
bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian who was killed in 2011 with credit to the US
government and specifically the Barrack Obama administration, and Abdullah
Azzam, a Palestinian Sunni scholar who was killed in 1989. The group, like the
Taliban, came to prominence during the Soviet war in Afghanistan of. It strives
for international jihad.

          The group was responsible for large
scale attacks in New York, London and Madrid and was the main target of the
NATO-led War on Terror following the September 11, 2001 attacks. As a result,
many of al-Qaeda leadership have been killed and al-Qaeda now adopts a
decentralized structure using regional cells and affiliated organizations,
known as franchises, instead of a centrally controlled organization.

          Al-Qaeda and its affiliates undertook
attacks in 12 countries (ALGERIA, BANGLADESH, FRANCE, KENYA, LEBANON, MALI,
PAKISTAN, SOMALIA, SYRIA, UGANDA, YEMEN) in 2015, down from 14 the previous
year and the peak of 16 countries in 2011. In total, there were 1,620 deaths and
969 recorded injuries from 368 attacks from the six most prominent al-Qaeda affiliates
in 2015. Also, there was a 17% decline in attacks from one of the deadliest of
Al-Qaeda affiliates in 2014 “al-Shabaab going to show how dangerously and
ruthlessly this network of terrorism has been operating.

           In 2015, the deadliest affiliate of the
Al-Qaeda group “AL-SHABAAB” was responsible for the death of 836 people, an 18
per cent decline from 2014. Nevertheless, 2015 saw the group’s deadliest attack
which targeted civilians; Kenya’s Garissa University College attack that killed
at least 147 people.  Al-Shabaab, also
known as Harakat al-Shabab al-Mujahideen, is an al-Qaeda affiliate based in
Somalia that is seeking to create an Islamic state in Somalia. Whilst ISIL have
appealed for al-Shabaab to pledge allegiance, al-Shabaab remain an al-Qaeda
affiliate. Kenyan military forces have been placing further pressure on
al-Shabaab in Somalia in 2015 and 2016, which has diminished their ability to
conduct more attacks.      

          The second deadliest of al-Qaeda
affiliates is the “AL-NUSRA Front”, also known as Jabhat al-Nusra and al-Qaeda
in Syria, and has been active in the Syrian civil war since 2012. Unlike other al-Qaeda
affiliates, the group had an increase in deaths from terrorism from 488 in 2014
to 611 in 2015. In 2013, ISIL attempted to annex the al-Nusra Front, which
remained affiliated with al-Qaeda until July 2016 when it announced a split.
Most analysts believe this was an attempt to avoid being targets of air strikes
and to potentially participate in future negotiations rather than an
ideological or tactical shift for the group. As well as deaths from terrorism,
in 2015 the al-Nusra Front also engaged in 270 battle-related deaths from
conflict with Harakat Hazm, Hezbollah and ISIL as well as with the forces loyal
to the Assad regime.

          Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula
(AQAP) killed 155 from terrorism in 2015, a 62 per cent decline from 2014. AQAP
is active in Yemen and saw declining influence due to the influx of
ISIL-affiliated groups. Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) in Algeria and
Mali, active since 2007, killed 15 people across 11 attacks in 2015, including
attacks on members of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated
Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA). In early 2016 they also undertook
attacks in Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire targeting tourists.

          The Abdullah Azzam Brigades is the al-Qaeda
branch in Lebanon, with attacks being undertaken under the group name since
2004. They did not claim responsibility for any deaths from terrorism in 2015
and have been less deadly since the capture of their former leader in late
2013. The newest al-Qaeda affiliate, al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent, began
activities in September 2014 and claimed responsibility for the deaths of
secular bloggers and publishers in Bangladesh.

 

2.2.2
ISIS or ISIL

          ISIL, also known as ISIS, Islamic
State of Iraq and the Levant or Daesh, is a terrorist group based in Syria and
Iraq. It emerged from al-Qaeda in Iraq, moving into Syria during the Syrian
civil war. In February 2014 al-Qaeda formally broke ties with ISIL, with the
leader of al-Qaeda stating ISIL disobeyed directions from al-Qaeda to kill
fewer civilians. Like other fundamentalist jihadi groups, ISIL seeks to create
an area of Islamic rule. The group controls a significant amount of territory
in both Iraq and Syria. ISIL aspires to control the Levant region which
includes Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. It is opposed to the Alawite
Assad regime and the Shia Iraqi Government of Haider al-Abadi. ISIL has also
claimed to be fighting a holy war against Shia Muslims, Christians and Yezidis,
an ethno-religious group in Iraq and Syria. The entire organization is led by
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi who is known as the Caliph or political successor. ISIL
has a strong military presence in the region with many former members of the
Iraqi army under the Saddam Hussein regime joining it.

          In 2015, ISIL slightly increased the
deadliness of attacks from previous years. This resulted in ISIL killing 6,141
people in terrorist attacks, a one per cent increase from 2014. However, this
increase in deaths coincided with an 11 per cent reduction in attacks. As such,
ISIL became more deadly, with more high-fatality attacks. There were on average
6.4 deaths per attack in 2015 up from 5.7 deaths per attack in 2014. As well as
increased lethality, there was also an increase in the number of countries
targeted by ISIL. ISIL conducted attacks in 11 countries in 2015, up from six
countries the previous year. The group undertook attacks in 252 different
cities in 2015. 2015 also saw an increase in the number of groups that claimed
affiliation with ISIL. There were ISIL affiliates active in 13 countries in
2014. By 2015 that had grown to at least 28 countries which had groups that had
pledged allegiance to ISIL. There have also been attacks by individuals who
have been inspired or directed by ISIL. For example, there were ISIL-inspired
plots in at least 11 OECD countries in 2015. Despite the increased geographic
spread of ISIL connected attacks, the majority of attacks occurred in Iraq and
Syria. 81 per cent of attacks by ISIL were in Iraq and 15 per cent were in
Syria. Four cities in Iraq, Baghdad, Ramadi, Mosul and Baiji, together
accounted for a quarter of all attacks. The majority of attacks targeted
civilians, who account for 43 per cent of deaths. Over half of attacks on
civilians were bombings or explosions, with the number of assassinations
decreasing from the previous year. There were 609 bombings by ISIL in 2015, and
they were more deadly on average than previous years. This is a trend that has
been seen with other groups too. As groups gain greater experience with
explosives they tend to have more casualties with fewer attacks. In 2014, 40
per cent of attacks did not lead to any deaths, whereas it was 23 per cent in
2015. The biggest change in 2015 was the increased lethality of suicide
bombings. Suicide bombings remained more deadly than other types of bombings
with on average 11 deaths per attack compared to three for other types of
bombings. This was an increase of 20 per cent from the previous year.

          ISIL generated an estimated US$2
billion in revenue in 2015. This was largely due to smuggling of oil which at
one stage generated on average US$1.3 million a day.3 According to the US
treasury department this business left ISIL net profits of just over US$500
million in 2015.4 As a result of the targeting of ISIL-operated refineries and
convoys by coalition forces, production declined from 75,000 to 50,000 barrels
per day.5 Another major revenue stream for ISIL is taxation, both for
individuals and businesses in the territory they control. This is estimated to
be US$350 million per year.6 This includes income and business tax of ten per
cent, as well as taxes on pharmaceutical drugs and cash withdrawals.

Other
significant sources of financing include the sale of archaeological pieces to
black markets, which was estimated to be up to US$100 million per year.7 ISIL
has also generated revenue from kidnapping for ransom, estimated to be up to
US$45 million in 2014. Kidnapping has often targeted the international
community, but declined in 2015 and 2016 as there were fewer staff from
multinationals active in regions controlled by ISIL.8 There have also been
reports that there is a connection between ISIL and drug smuggling.9