CHAPTER related anxiety and burnout. Bakker, (2011) has

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

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2.1 INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

2.1.1 Job Demand

Job
Demand refers to “physical, social, hierarchical parts of the job that require
supported physical or mental endeavours that are along these lines related with
certain physiological and mental costs” Demerouti et al., (2012). They also
cited job demands are basic factors that make representatives encounter
business related anxiety and burnout.

Bakker,
(2011) has described job demand can refers to something that need physical,
physiological, social involvement and organizational aspects of the job in
achieving and completing the task in the same time can reduce costs. In the
other side of this explanation this job demand stimulate personal growth,
learning, and development.

Job
demand usually measured by five criteria which is work too hard, excessive
work, time constraints, work in rushing and demand conflict. It may not giving
and equal weight compared to different individual creativity, skill
development, skill requirement and routine. The decision making or called an
authority like freedom to make decision, choice of ways to perform work and
influence over job requirements make the job demand became complicated. The
support from the organization, co-worker and supervisor was under social
support in the job demand Fan et al., (2013)

Challenges
in performing or fulfilling the job tend to be stressful although it elevate
mastery, personal growth and future gains. The challenges appear with observing
demand with high workload, time pressure and high levels of job responsibility.
Some employees see this challenges as an opportunity to learn, achieve and
showing a type of competence to get reward and employer recognition. In
contrast with the employees may seen this as an hindrance as stressful demand
that will constrain their personal growth, learning and goal attainment Crawford
et al., (2010)

Job
demand can be divided by three type from the aspects of human functioning which
is physical demand, carry out the physical activities and it is affected the
musculoskeletal system. Secondly the mental demands that involve processing of
information like planning and memory the task need to be completed. Lastly and
the third one is emotional demands impact directly on emotions and feeling.
Emotional demands firmly related to interpersonal relationship like caring and
concern for others Jonge et al., (2010).

According
to Demerouti et al. (2012) job demands are basic factors that make
representatives encounter business related anxiety and burnout. Schaufeli and
Taris, (2014) clarify job demands usually force an additional effort to gain
the task goals and to avoid the shrinking of performance. This additional
effort clearly arises with physical, mental and emotional prices such as
fatigue and irritability. Employees may recover through this energy consuming,
by taking a break, switching tasks, execution less demanding tasks but if this
recovery is insufficient so employees will come out with exhausted physical and
mental.

In
addition job demand require high commitment for job completion. That job
characteristic empowered the organization with high discretion and skill
requirements. High job demand means active jobs participation. Active job
result higher levels of employee’s well-being vice versa Holman, (2013).

 

 

 

2.1.2 Time Pressure

            According
to Tims et al. (2014) economic decision and plan are often taken time and
pressure. Person that involve in the negotiation, trading and implement the
task always experience time pressure. Limited time to completion and meet the
dateline is what we call time pressure. Employees must cope with this type of
pressure to avoid stress and misconduct in performing the task. The last minute
task given by the employer will initiate the time pressure. Different
individual may differ the ability to handle the time pressure.

            Kwaku, (2012) mention that time
pressure cause a condition of information overload because employees simply did
not have sufficient time to process and indirectly forced to shorten their
decision to the task since less alternative or option available. Scarce of sources
or skill required in accomplishment of the task make the time shorten and not
enough. Researcher found that more familiar the task or assignment it will
reduce the stress on performing the task to meet the dateline.

Work
stress is a kind of time pressure. Although researcher has been exploring the
relationship between work stress and employee performance for nearly decades,
there still remaining controversy and arguing about the consequences of work
stress on job performance. There are few version of theory trying to clarify
the relationship between them. The negative side theory states that stress
initiated individuals to differ time, attention and energy from work at hand
thus leading to negative effect on performance. Distinct from negative, the positive
theory argued that stress can improve performance. It clarified the
relationship as stress enhanced performance in the starting, when stress was
larger than threshold value, as stress raise up, the performance decrease
simultaneously. Usually shorter time to meet deadline will increase the time
pressure. People often require certain time to accomplish the task with
perfection. There is also observation reported that time pressure has no effect
on performance Yu, (2015)

Time
pressure are evaluated by fluctuating the length of time needed for finishing
the tasks given. The competition among other employees who are given the same
task make things stressor Shurchkov, (2010).According to Sharmin, (2008)
influence of time pressure on context of performance and found there is no
significant effect.

The
definition of time pressure as a mental evaluation follow on the reflection on
the total of work to be done in relation to observed capacity or time
available. Time pressure can be characterized as a challenge stressor if
positive handling in increased of effort will lead to better sense of personal
accomplishment and recognition. This challenging time pressure make the
employees sees an opportunity for achievement and development with the
competency among each other’s Widmer et al., (2012).

Kühnel et al., (2012) described a well-established
instrument about measurement of time pressure. It encompassed that did the
employees work faster than usual in order to complete task. In order to meet
the dateline it also question employees came home late because of too much
workload to finish. All this questions will be evaluated to measure how far the
time pressure affected employee work life balance.

Nätti
et al., (2015) addressing the time pressure began when the existence of tight
time schedules and the incompatibility between time and task demands. Nätti
et al., (2015) give an example about this incompatibility in employees work
contains tight schedule, employees need to expanse their working days to get
all the jobs done. They also did not have enough time upon the date of
completion the task even they are capable and willing to do it.

 

 

2.1.3 Salary

Salary
can be characterized as a confirmed amount of cash paid to a staff usually
measured at monthly and annual basis, not hourly, as opposed to wages, salary
is a confirmed amount of cash or compensation paid to a staff by their employer
consequently for the labour done. It is fairly promising to observe that
self-value is seen as being less relevant since an organization can do minimal
regarding employee’s perception of disparity with respect to their financial needs
or their historical pay evolution Idrees et al., (2015).

Wararkar,
(2015) explain salary was specified in an employment contract and a system of
periodic payment from an employer to an employee. It is differ from wages,
where each job hour and other unit was paid separately rather than on a
periodic basis. In the view point of business, salary was seen as the cost of
acquiring human resources for running operation and later designated personnel
expense or salary expense. The fee of wages and salary is an inbuilt system
with human force for their job completed. Payment was made to the labour is
called wages and sum of money paid periodically to persons whose production
cannot easily being evaluate such as managerial staff is called salaries.

To
retain the competitive employees in the organizations, they are obligated to
provide their employees with suitable working conditions, competitive salaries,
employment security and autonomy Ali and Akram, (2012). Financial aspects
especially salary is the most important because it has impact on the
performance if further concluded by him.

Amah
et al. (2013) clarify salary was refers to any payment of money at monthly
intervals to non-manual worker like white collars and managerial workers for
job done. Salary is generally paid on annual rate, typically paid by bank
transfer. Payment are performance based. Employees are positively nearer to
their organizations and perform a better job, while they get more beneficial
reward and acknowledgement in their organizations. Salaries and reward rose up
the level of effectiveness and performance of employees on their task resulting
thereof increase the success of the organization Jehanzeb, (2012)

Mustapha,
(2013) clarify Haethfield, (2012) statement, salary is an exchange for a work
performed from an employer to an employee in a form of money or compensation
been paid. This type of exchange is a vital role to determining employee’s
level of job satisfaction. Salary is regulated by market pay rates for people
performing similar work in the same industries in the same area. Employer also
has right to established salary ranges as long it meets minimum salary set by
government Pongoh, (2013).

According
to Luthans, (2000) both financial and non-financial reward both can be result
positively to enhance performance and behaviours of the employees. A salary and
reward framework depends on the expectancy theory, which proposes that
employees are more likely to be motivated to perform when they observed that
there is a strong link between performance and reward they received.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.4 Workplace Stress

            Manjunatha and Renukamurthy, (2017)
define there is definite level of stress on employees in banking sector.
Employees cannot adapt with hasty changes take place in the jobs. Workplace
stress in banking sector may arise from employee contribution, rapid changes in
technology, service for customers and lack of customer response. Social stress is
about communicating, interacting with other human beings or in easy term called
relationship with other people around. The organizational stress also
contributed to the workplace stress with high demands and pressures made by the
organization to its employee.

            Kishori and Vinothini, (2016) had
discuss the banking sector nowadays face a greater challenges in technological
revolution, service variation and worldwide banking. Regarding the current
issues, not every employees can cope with it and the organizations concern
about this rapid change making workplace stress becoming major problem.  This stress affected physical, mental and
behavioural to surrounding. Terrible results if an employee do not feel
comfortable while working and feel stress and pressure.

            An employee in his or her job in
banking sector confront stress as described by Jamshed et al., (2011) workplace
is an important basis of stress for employees because the total of time they spent
in their particular banks. Work stress like work overload not only has negative
consequences on job performance but also related to employee’s intentions to
depart or quit from an organization Jamal, (2007). He also defines earlier in
2005 that job stress is an employee’s feedback to the qualities of working
environment that seem emotionally and physically threating.

           

 

            Lately, during this current year
workplace stress has become a frequent problem for human resource managers Avey
et.al, (2009). On the negative side employees who are through and experience
high level of work place stress tend to be unhealthy, poorly motivated and less
productive in job performance context.

            Workplace stress in a physiological
method theorized, a damaging psychological state which the outcome of an
interaction between person and their work environment. It is the typical of
work environment that effect the on the physically and emotionally Arshadi and Damiri,
(2013).

Masood, (2013) has discussed that
employees were try to work with an energized ability and full of determination
even though they not being provided with the necessary support and still they
need to execute their task with goodness. Employees tend to avoid stress at
their workplace results decrease directly affects their performance. Dhankar,
(2015) do a research the work stress among employees of banking sector. There
are few factors like work overload, ambiguity, pressure, conflict among other
employees are triggered the stress. Stress nowadays has huge series effects on
employee’s performance and behaviour.

            In overall, stress greatly affects
productivity and performance of organizations. Several factors of occupational
stress have been defined in the literature such as work load, career
advancement, management style, working relationship, organizational support,
reward, job autonomy, and physical environment Lu et al., (2012).

 

 

 

 

2.2 DEPENDANT VARIABLE

2.2.1 Employee Performance

            According
Anitha, (2014) employee performance is the results gained and achievement made
at work. Performance means to keeping up plans while going for the outcomes.
Employee performance also notice monetary or non-monetary results of the
employee that has affect directly with organization performance and its
success.

The
theory of performance is more relevance to individuals and organizations alike.
The great relevance of individuals and job performance as being measure in
empirical research can been seen as the outcomes of total performance to the
organization. Entirely, performance is related to individual’s capability to
recognize his or her job goals, fulfil the potentials as successfully achieve
job targets meet the standard set by the organization James, (2015)

However,
non-financial indicators should also be considered in order to achieve
performance that is usually developed in line with the results of human
resources such as turnover, absenteeism, job satisfaction, productivity and
quality Abdalkrim, (2013).

To
achieve success and achieve success, organizations must give priority to
employee performance. Employee performance is about how employees achieve a set
of organization and linking behaviour of their interpersonal norms of
organization (Imran et al., 2012) and finish the job, agreed to by the staff
with timely, effective and efficient, as determined by the employer Tinofirei, (2011).

According
to Trivellas et al. (2010), employee performance can be affected by a number of
conditions such as job satisfaction, work environment, motivation and stress.
The engagement of employee is the key to see high levels of employee
performance shown in variety of research Mone and London, (2010)

Human
resources practices coordinated internal operations to affect abilities,
motivation, and employee opportunity (AMO) in a way that has the potential
harmony. Intrinsically, we comprehensively cover the different aspects of the
human resource system can affect the ability, motivation, and opportunity to
contribute and potentially effective alignment between them Boxall and Macky, (2008);
Wood and Wall, (2007).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.3 Relationship between Independent
Variable and Dependant Variable

This
section is to identify the relationship between independent variables and
dependent variable. There is a three relationship between independent and
dependent variable.

 

2.3.1 Relationship between Job
Demand and Employee Performance.

Bruggen,
(2015) describe that the relationship between job demand or workload and
employee performance has been study in many research. The negative and positive
outcome of job demand stressor has been discovered in the past examination but
results are variety. From his research, on the side of positive results between
job demand and employee performance, employees need certain level of stress
level to catalyst to achieve a better result of performance at their best. Job
demand impact employee more on negative side, when an employee cannot cope with
stress becoming dysfunctional to organizational target. Bruggen also find out
employees who are work under stress, tend to became constricted thinker and
performance deficiency.

Xanthopoulou
et al. (2007) carry out in their study, the job demands are the key player of
burnout that means fatigue of emotional and physical strength from the
continued stress and frustration. This excessive workload or job demand is
vital matter to look up by an organization in order to maintain employee’s
health to perform the best for their organization.

According
to Ali et al. (2014) found that workload, role conflict, and inadequate
monitory reward are the prime reasons of causing stress in employees that leads
to reduced employee efficiency. As the saying goes, if you look after your
employee so, the rest will look after itself.

 

2.3.2 Relationship between Time
Pressure and Employee Performance

            Job demand and time pressure in
banking sector to finish too much work in short time summons the load of stress
that will decrease employee performances as Mahmood et al., (2010) discussed
the job demand cannot be complete with an excessive pressure, motivation slowly
disappear, no more enjoyable in doing work, employees started to feel lost
interest in work and lastly the employee performances decline from day to day.

            Shahid et al. (2011) pointed out
common employees work in banking sector felt stress in doing their job and in
return their job performance is decline. Since of work is overload and time
pressure, employee cannot to manage work life and effect their relation with
others especially family. Proper way should be taken to decrease stress and
manage the performance of employees in banking sector.

            The research made by Lopes and
Kachalia, (2016) has pinned out time pressures is one of key source of stress.
Due to the results, this is the major cause of employee’s poor performances.
Hence, there are more negative relation in time pressure than a positive
relation. Stress are affected employees in the way of cognitive, tendency to
perform job and their moral.

            Imrab et al. (2013) found that major
issues with time has negative impact to the employee performances. Negative
effect not only at the employees but also encumbers organizational outcome.
Employees which working constantly under pressure will reduce their
concentration, commitment and highly potential to commit slackness. Generally
the research concluded time pressure decreasing employee performances.

 

             
 

2.3.3 Relationship between Salary
and Employee Performance

            Pravin
and Kishor, (2015) concluded ‘fat salary’ which means higher salary compared to
other working sector in the job market can motivating employees to enhance
their performances although money is not the only motivator available. Today’s
generation willing to become workaholic if the outcome is worth the effort.

            Salary is a type of monetary reward.
It has the strong impacts in attitude, contribution, commitment and attitude of
an employees toward their organization. The great influence toward employee’s
performance cause the organization reward their employees efficiently to
increase their productivity and loyalty directly enhance organization’s success
Amah et al., (2013).

            Pongoh, (2013) recommend
organizations must spare more consideration on the salary of the employee
because the previous research has indicated salary is the main reason of turn
over. So this result are showing salary is not just affect employee
performances but in worsen situation employee may leave the organizations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4
Research Framework

 

Independent
Variable                                                                       Dependent
Variable

Workplace
Stress

Job
Demand

Time Pressure

Salary

                                                                 

Employee
Performance

 

 

 

                                                           Awadh et.al., (2015)

Figure 1

Figure
1 shows the general independent variable, which is workplace stress and
specific independent variables which are job demand, time pressure and salary.
The dependent variable is employee performance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.5
Research Hypothesis

The
hypotheses that we could find based on the research framework as above is: –

H1:
There is a relationship between job demand and employee performance.

H2:
There is a relationship between time pressure and employee performance.

H3:
There is a relationship between salary and employee performance.